Mont Saint Michel!
1583 Edinburgh University is founded in Scotland.
1583 Japanese leader Hideyoshi builds Osaka castle.
1583 Sir Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland for England.
1584 Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible dies.
1584 Walter Raleigh and Richard Grenville organize English colonizing ventures to North America.
1584 William I, leader of the Dutch Revolt, is assassinated.
1585 England is at war with Spain (until 1604).
1585 John Davis discovers Davis Strait between Greenland and North America.
1585 Roanoke Island in North Carolina is settled as the first English colony in Virginia.
1586 Mary, Queen of Scots, is found guilty of treason and executed (1587).
1586 Pipe smoking is introduced into England.
1587 Francis Drake attacks the Spanish fleet in Cadiz harbor.
1587 Japanese leader Hideyoshi bans Christian missionaries.
1588 Christian IV succeeds Frederick II as king of Denmark.
1588 The Catholic League expels Henry III from Paris.
1588 The Spanish Armada is defeated by the English navy.
1588 Timothy Bright composes the first manual of shorthand.
1589 Galileo Galilei is made professor of mathematics at Pisa.
1589 Henry III is assassinated; he is succeeded by Henry IV as king of France.
1590 Christopher Marlowe's drama Tamburlaine the Great is published in London.
1590 English poet Edmund Spenser begins The Faerie Queene.
1590 Hideyoshi completes the unification of Japan.
1590 Viete, inventor of symbolic algebra, writes his Introduction to the Analytic Art.
1590 William Shakespeare begins writing plays about this time.
1591 The Roanoke colony dies out in North Carolina.
1591 The Songhai Empire is destroyed by the Moroccan army.
1592 Elizabeth I founds Trinity College in Dublin.
1592 Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno is imprisoned for heresy.
1592 London theaters are closed because of the plague.
1592 Playwright Christopher Marlowe writes Doctor Faustus.
1592 Thomas Kyd writes his revenge play The Spanish Tragedy.
1593 English theologian Richard Hooker publishes his Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity.
1593 Henry IV of France converts to Catholicism.
1594 Henry IV of France captures Paris.
1594 Jacopo Peri's Dafne, the first opera, is performed in Italy about this time.
1595 Hugh O'Neill leads a rebellion against the English in Ireland.
1596 Warsaw is established as the capital of Poland.
1597 English composer John Dowland publishes his First Booke of Songes.
1597 Spanish artist El Greco paints The Agony in the Garden.
1598 Abbas I of Persia (Iran) defeats the Uzbeks at Herat.
1598 Boris Godunov becomes tsar of Russia; the Time of Troubles begin.
1598 English playwright Ben Jonson writes Every Man in His Humour.
1598 John Florio produces an Italian-English dictionary.
1598 Philip III succeeds Philip II as king of Spain.
1598 The Edict of Nantes grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics.
1599 The Earl of Essex is imprisoned for negotiating a truce with the Irish rebels.
1599 The Globe theater is built in London.
1600 A charter is granted to the East India Company by Queen Elizabeth I.
1600 Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake in Rome for heretical writing.
1600 Hans and Zacharias Jannsen construct the first microscope about this time.
1600 Maurice of Nassau defeats the Austrian army at Nieuport.
1600 The Baroque period in art and architecture begins in Italy about this time.
1600 Wigs become fashionable at European courts about this time.
1600 William Gilbert publishes his treatise on magnetism.
1601 Italian artist Caravaggio paints the Conversion of St. Paul.
1601 Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci arrives in Peking.
1601 Manchurian leader Nurhachi unites the Manchu tribes under the banner system.
1601 The Earl of Essex is executed by Elizabeth I after his rebellion fails.
1601 The Gobelins tapestry factory is established in Paris.
1602 Abbas I leads Persia (Iran) in a holy war against the Ottoman Turks.
1602 Bartholomew Gosnold explores the New England coast and names Cape Cod.
1602 The Bodleian Library, the first public library in Europe, opens in Oxford, England
1602 The Dutch East India Company is founded.
1603 Ieyasu founds the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan.
1603 Queen Elizabeth I dies; she is succeeded by James I (James IV of Scotland).
1603 The first Kabuki performance is given in Japan.
1603 William Shakespeare's play Hamlet is performed for the first time.
1604 A false Dmitry lays claim to the Russian throne during the "Time of Troubles."
1604 Charles IX is crowned king of Sweden.
1604 England and Spain are at peace after 19 years of war.
1604 Flemish artist Carel van Mander publishes a handbook for painters Het Schilderboeck.
1604 Hieronymus Fabricius writes De formata foctu, a study of human embryology.
1604 The French East India Company is founded.
1604 The Spanish capture the Dutch city of Ostend after a 3-year siege.
1605 English philosopher Francis Bacon publishes The Advancement of Learning.
1605 Jahangir succeeds Akbar as Mogul emperor of India.
1605 Spanish writer Cervantes publishes part one of Don Quixote.
1605 The English claim Barbados in the West Indies.
1605 The Gunpowder Plot to blow up the English Parliament is discovered.
1605 The first French settlement in North America is founded at Port Royal in Nova Scotia.
1606 Ben Jonson's play Volpone is performed for the first time.
1607 Claudio Monteverdi's first opera Orfeo is performed.
1607 John Smith founds the first English colony at Jamestown in Virginia.
1608 Emperor Rudolf II cedes Hungary to his brother Matthias.
1608 Girolamo Frescobaldi is appointed as organist at St. Peter's in Rome.
1608 Italian scientist Galileo Galilei assembles an astronomical telescope.
1608 Samuel de Champlain founds a French settlement in Quebec.
1608 The first telescope is invented by Dutch optician Hans Lippershey.
1609 A truce with Spain gives the United Provinces (the Netherlands) virtual independence.
1609 Johannes Kepler publishes his first law of planetary motion in New Astronomy.
1609 Spanish playwright Lope de Vega publishes The New Art of Writing Plays.
1609 The English colonize Bermuda.
1609 The Spanish found Santa Fe in New Mexico.
1610 Ben Jonson's play The Alchemist is performed for the first time.
1610 English navigator Henry Hudson becomes the first European to explore Hudson Bay.
1610 Galileo Galilei publishes his first stellar observations in The Starry Messenger.
1610 Henry IV of France is assassinated; he is succeeded by his son Louis XIII.
1610 Maximilian of Bavaria forms the Catholic League to oppose the Protestant Union.
1610 The Polish army of Sigismund III invades Russia and captures Moscow.
1611 An edition of the Bible authorized by King James I is completed in England.
1611 Christian IV of Denmark declares war on Sweden.
1611 English and Scottish Protestants settle in Ireland under the Ulster Plantation.
1611 Gustav II Adolf succeeds Charles IX as king of Sweden.
1612 John Webster's tragedy The White Devil is produced.
1612 Matthias succeeds his brother Rudolf II as Holy Roman Emperor.
1613 Gabor Bethlen becomes Prince of Transylvania.
1613 Gustav II Adolf ends the War of Kalmar with Denmark and attacks Russia.
1613 Michael becomes tsar of Russia, founding the Romanov dynasty.
1613 Virginia colonists destroy French settlements in Maine and Nova Scotia.
1614 James I dissolves the Addled Parliament in England.
1614 Pocahontas, a North American Indian princess, marries English settler John Rolfe.
1614 Scottish mathematician John Napier publishes Marvelous Canon of Logarithms.
1614 Sir Walter Raleigh writes his History of the World.
1615 Coffee is introduced into Italy from Turkey.
1615 Manchu tribes in China expand to eight banners (military regions) under Nurhachi.
1615 The Dutch seize the Spice Islands (the Moluccas) from the Portuguese.
1615 The first English language reference is made to tea.
1616 A smallpox epidemic decimates the Indian population in New England.
1616 Cardinal Richelieu becomes Minister of State for Foreign Affairs in France.
1616 Emperor Ieyasu of Japan dies; he is succeeded by his son Hidetada.
1616 The Catholic church issues an edict against Copernicanism.
1616 William Baffin searches for the Northwest Passage and discovers Baffin Bay.
1617 The Treaty of Stolbovo ends the war between Russia and Sweden.
1617 Tobacco is established as the major industry in North America.
1618 Sister Mary of Agreda of Spain writes the earliest known recipe for
chili (with venison and antelope).
1618 Conflict between Catholic and Protestant states begins the Thirty Years' War.
1618 James I orders the execution of Sir Walter Raleigh.
1619 Dutch ships bring the first Negro slaves to the colony of Virginia.
1619 Ferdinand II is elected Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia.
1619 Inigo Jones designs the Banqueting House at Whitehall, London.
1619 Louis XIII of France defeats the supporters of his mother Maria de Medicis.
1619 Spanish artist Diego Velazquez paints The Water Seller of Seville.
1619 The Bohemians depose Ferdinand and elect Frederick V (Elector Palatine) as king.
1620 Catholic League forces under Graf von Tilly defeat the Bohemians under Frederick V.
1620 Cornelis Drebbel demonstrates a submarine on the River Thames.
1620 Ferdinand II is restored to the throne of Bohemia.
1620 Gustavus II Adolf begins a war with Poland and captures Livonia.
1620 The Pilgrim Fathers arrive at Cape Cod and found the Plymouth Colony.
1621 A Huguenot (Protestant) revolt begins against Louis XIII in France.
1621 English scholar Robert Burton publishes Anatomy of Melancholy.
1621 Philip IV becomes king of Spain and Portugal.
1621 The Dutch West India Company is founded.
1621 War is renewed between Spain and the United Provinces (the Netherlands).
1622 Indians massacre 347 settlers in Virginia.
1623 Abbas I, shah of Persia (Iran), captures Bagdhad from the Turks.
1623 Catholic League and Imperial forces overrun the Palatinate in Germany.
1623 Diego Velazquez is made court painter to Philip IV of Spain.
1623 Philosopher Francis Bacon publishes On the Dignity and Growth of Sciences.
1623 The first English settlement is founded in New Hampshire.
1624 Dutch artist Frans Hals paints the Laughing Cavalier.
1624 English poet John Donne publishes Devotions upon Emergent Occasions.
1624 Flemish chemist Johannes Baptista van Helmont names compressible fluid gas.
1625 Albrecht Wenzel von Wallenstein is made general of Ferdinand II's Imperial armies.
1625 Charles I succeeds James I as king of England.
1625 Flemish baroque artist Peter Paul Rubens paints The Judgement of Paris.
1625 Peter Minuit founds the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (now New York).
1625 The Spanish capture Breda from the Dutch.
1626 Graf von Tilly's Catholic army routs the Danes under Christian IV.
1626 Imperial forces under Wallenstein defeat Graf von Mansfield at Dessau.
1626 The Dutch purchase Manhattan Island from the Indians for the equivalent of $24.
1627 Shah Jahan succeeds Jahangir as Mogul emperor of India.
1627 The Huguenots (Protestants) revolt against Cardinal Richelieu at La Rochelle.
1627 The Manchus (Ch'ing) begin their conquest of Korea.
1628 English physician William Harvey publishes On the Motions of the Heart and Blood.
1628 French philosopher Rene Descartes begins Rules For the Direction of the Mind.
1628 King Charles I is forced to accept Parliament's Petition of Right.
1628 Puritans under John Endecott settle at Salem in Massachusetts.
1628 The Duke of Buckingham, a supporter of the French Huguenots, is assassinated.
1628 The Huguenots surrender La Rochelle after a 14-month siege.
1629 Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules England directly.
1629 Ferdinand II's Edict of Restitution restores Catholic properties taken by Protestants.
1630 Bhutan becomes independent from Tibet about this time.
1630 Dutch landscape artist Salomon van Ruisdael paints River Landscape.
1630 Gustav II Adolf invades Germany in support of the Protestant cause.
1630 John Winthrop founds a Puritan settlement at Boston in Massachusetts.
1630 Spanish artist Francisco de Zubaran paints the Holy House of Nazareth.
1630 The Ottoman Turks capture Hamadan in Persia (Iran).
1631 Baldassarre Longhena begins building the church of Santa Maria della Salute in Venice.
1631 Gustav II Adolf defeats Graf von Tilly's Imperial forces at Breitenfeld.
1631 Marie de Medicis goes into exile after a plot to remove Cardinal Richelieu fails.
1631 The building of the Taj Mahal begins at Agra in India.
1631 The first newspaper, the Gazette de France, is published in Paris.
1632 Antony Van Dyck settles in London and becomes court painter to King Charles I.
1632 Bernal Diaz del Castillo's True Story of the Conquest of Mexico is published.
1632 Charles I grants a charter for the English colony of Maryland.
1632 Christina becomes queen of Sweden at age 6; Count Oxenstierna rules as regent.
1632 Dutch artist Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn paints The Anatomy Lesson.
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